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How To Get Involved In Free and Open Source Software and Stuff Today! Yes, TODAY!

Image credits: Roy Lathwell

  • Download a Linux Distro today and join the corresponding forum
    (Downloads: Ubuntu Debian Fedora ) (Forums: Ubuntu Debian Fedora
  •  Go to Wikipedia, click on your chosen language group, go to the top right corner and click on “create an account”, read the tutorial on how to edit, and then navigate to a page on a person or subject you are interested in and start editing. 
  •  Download an IRC client, open it up, create an IRC handle, (or even easier than that, just go to Freenode) and type /join #”name of project you are interested in” to join that project’s channel. For example, if you are interested in the Drupal content management system (CMS), you’d type “/join #drupal” to get into the Drupal channel. You will find lots of people who know the project well and can give you ideas of how you might be able to help. (Read more about getting started with IRC here). 
  • Register at Github.com.  Go to Github.com/languages to find projects written in programming languages you know and like or search for keywords in the search bar. Fork the repository to familiarize yourself with what’s been done so far and noodle with the code in your own sandbox. If it’s unclear where/ how you can contribute, reach out to people working on the project in their IRC channel or check out the issue tracker on the project website.
  • Sign up for Code Triage and they’ll email you every day with a different issue that maybe *you* can solve! 
  • The GNOME Foundation has a GREAT Get Involved page outlining all the different ways you can contribute that project. Go there and involve yourself.
  •  Amara is an open source tool for captioning and/or adding translations to any video. Register on their site and join one of the teams creating captions for everything from Netflix films to TED talks to Coursera courses and resources for hearing impaired people. There are also opportunities for coders here
  •  Open Street Map (OSM) is a a free and open source map that is being continuously edited and improved upon by users all around the world. Navigate to this page to create an account and follow the steps to start contributing right away! There are also great Open Street Map meetups around the world; click here to find out if there is one in your area and register to attend the next one. 

OK, what other projects need help? Which other ways can people start contributing today? Please chime in in the comments!

6/6/13 – Edited to add
OpenHatch is a non-profit dedicated to matching prospective free software contributors with communities, tools, and education.

Go to SocialCoding 4 Good’s Volunteer Page, fill out your information to get started http://socialcoding4good.org/volunteer

6/7/13 – Edited to add
Mozilla.org, maintainers of the Firefox project, are committed to openness, innovation and opportunity on the Web. Go to http://www.mozilla.org/en-US/contribute/ to sign up and start contributing!

6/22/13 – Edited to add
CodeMontage – http://codemontage.com/projects
Django Admin Contribute Page – https://django-admin2.readthedocs.org/en/latest/contributing.html
Django – Django is “the Web framework for perfectionists with deadlines” – help them improve their documentation –  https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/internals/contributing/

Related links: 
8 Ways To Help Open-Source Projects If You’re Not A Coder 
How to become an amazing contributor (to an open source project)

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A Series of Fortunate Events

On Wednesday, I found time to sneak over to the first formal Open Source / LibTech Chicas meetup coordinated by Sandra of OpenITP and some other ladies. I was really glad that they got this together since last year on the heels of AdaCamp, I’d tried to get a women in open source meetup going with sorta mixed success (full disclosure: I was in the first trimester of my pregnancy and battling nausea and fatigue!). So anyway, Wednesday’s gathering was well-attended with an interesting mix of women who’ve been in FLOSS for a while and a bunch who had relatively no experience and had no clue where to start. One woman asked me point blank, “How did you get involved in this; is it some sort of subculture?!” And in answering this question, I realized my involvement in FLOSS has been the result of a series of fortunate events, including but not limited to:

  • my dad encouraging me to use the computer as much as possible when I came to house – noodling around with DOS and BASIC, dialing into BBSes we’d find out about from free tech circulars in the Bay Area, and buying me copies of 2600 Hacker Quarterly
  • meeting Sumana when I was a student at UC Berkeley and learning about Linux (and meeting cool people like Leonard through her!)
  • Brian, who was a tough young brother from the Bronx that worked in the mail room when I worked at Davis Shapiro law firm, literally handing me an Ubuntu disk and telling me I’d be crazy not to run it and how he encouraged all his boys to use it instead of Windows
  • my Windows machine crashing in Slovenia and deciding to finally just start running Ubuntu….and then running into problems along the way and learning the true joy of the forums
  • coming back to NYC and reconnecting with Sumana
  • meeting and working for Karl Fogel
  • getting hired at OpenGeo
  • After a few of us at the gathering answered the question, the next thing that new people wanted to know was “Where do *I* start?”So I told people I’d send them some links and figured I may as well post them here so everyone could access them and any of the smart people out there who read this blog could chime in with even more suggestions. That post is here.


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    Write/Speak/Code

    I’ll be speaking at Write/Speak/Code, the “action-oriented, professional development conference for women developers by women developers”, taking place at Pace University here in NYC June 20-22, 2013 . I’m not a developer and for that reason, I was at first hesitant to speak…I even turned it down at first (!), but I soon realized that I have lots to say and I’m honored to have been asked to say it! I’m going to be talking about women contributing to open source; I have a rough idea of what I want to say and I’ll certainly post my talk here after I give it. If you’re in town, please join me and many other fabulous and brilliant ladies at the conference. If you’re not in town, wish me luck!

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    social justice tech

    Status of Women in (FLOSS) Technology in Africa

    Just came across this great conversation between Dorothy Gordon, Director-General, AITI-KACE (Advances Information Technology Institute) Kofi Annan Centre of Excellent in ICT and Council Member of the Free Software and Open Source Foundation for Africa (FOSSFA) and Seun Ojedeji, Council member and CTO of FOSSFA and Federal University Oye-Ekiti (Ghana). It’s long but humorous and insightful, definitely worth a listen. I’m surely going to make a beeline to check out the hackerspace next time I’m in Ghana. Yay for African hackers, geeks, and nerds of all stripes!

    Categories
    social justice tech

    Resources for Girls Who Want to Code

    I’m on the Park Slope Parents Tech list, which is a listserve for Brooklyn parents who work in tech. Recently a mom sent this question to the list:

    I am not in the techfield and hope you don’t mind the intrusion of this message … My daughter is studying Video Game Design in college and having a tough time in some subjects because she never did any coding before she got to school… Seems lots of kids had a passion for coding well before college so it’s put her at a bit of a disadvantage.  I thought it might be helpful to work on this over the summer and wonder if you have any suggestions on how she can do this… Should she find a tutor proficient in this and if so where?

    Are there specific summer classes that would work?  Online classes?  I asked her academic adviser exactly what she should be working on and I’m including the list she sent … This reads like greek to me so I can’t answer any questions related to this list specifically. Thanks! 
     – The C# language & Visual Studio (the 2010 version is what we currently use)
     – Variables and data types
     – Arrays
     – Conditional statements: if, if/else, switch (and the logic that goes with each of these)
     – Loops: while, do/while, for, foreach
     – Objects & Classes
     – Inheritance
     – Polymorphism
     – Properties (a.k.a. getters & setters)
     – Abstract classes
     – Interfaces
     – Data Structures: Stacks, Queues, Linked Lists
     – C# Collections, specifically the List< > class


    I surprised myself by how many suggestions I had, so I figured I’d share them here (and add a few more) in case any one else had the same question. 

    I’d suggest she get into some Coursera courses (https://www.coursera.org/). They are free and she can learn a lot if she sticks with them. She should also look into Coder Dojo – http://coderdojonyc.com/about/ where she can find a mentor to support. GNOME also has a women’s mentorship program that she might be too young for but she should look into it anyway (http://projects.gnome.org/outreach/women/2006/). Oh there is also Google Summer of Code and she should get involved with Ada initiative (I am involved and a supporter!).   On a slightly less technically demanding level, Wikipedia always needs more women contributors and I’d be happy to put her in touch with my buddy Sarah Stierch if she’s interested in that.. 
    I am also a supporter of Black Girls Code, which is a group committed to help young black girls, aged 7-17 become innovators in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields. What do *you* suggest?

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    About Me

    IMG_8917
    Hi! I’m Camille. I am a wife, a mother, a repatriated New Yorker and an ex-expat (did 3.5 years in Slovenia). In the past few years, I’ve developed a passion for and commitment to free, libre, and open source software (FLOSS) and free culture.  In that time, I’ve worked at Question Copyright.org, FLOSS Manuals Foundation, and OpenGeo. As of August 2015, I am the Customer Success Lead at Clubhouse.  I’ve been on the board of Lefferts Community Food Cooperative since 2013.

    This blog reflects my personal views on culture, race, gender, and technology.

    Oh and here are a few other projects I’ve worked on in the past

    Magazines
    Slovenian Business Report (Contributing Writer)
    SEE Business magazine – (Contributing Writer)
    MQ magazine – (Contributing Photographer)
    Ljubljana InYour Pocket (Editor & Contributing Photographer, web and bi-monthly print travel guide magazine)
    Maska- Arts Magazine (English Language Copy Editor)
    Performer Magazine (Summer 2006, scroll down)
    Readymade Magazine

    Blogs
    Ace to Ace (music blog I occasionally update along with my brother, the internationally-acclaimed Hong Kong-based DJ, club manager, and beatmaster Yao)
    Africa Style Daily (writing about music from the continent and the diaspora)Boinkology’s BoinkMusic(sex & music)
    Adventures In Wheelville
    (my life in Slovenia)
    Kavbojka Klub
    (occasionally updated arts and style blog)

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    Sha Clack Clack: Revolutionary Temporality In the Work of Saul Stacey Williams

    A Nigga In The Storm

    ” A Klee painting named “Angelus Novus shows an angel looking as though he is about to move away from something he is fixedly contemplating. His eyes are staring, his mouth is open, his wings are spread. This is how one pictures the angel of history. His face turned towards the past. Where we perceive a chain of events he sees one single catastrophe which keeps piling wreckage upon wreckage and hurls it in front of his feet. The angel would like to stay and make whole what has been smashed……”

    – Walter Benjamin

    ” ..Now is the essence of my domain/ but it contains all that was and will be/ and i am as i was and will be/ because i am and always will be/ that nigga/ i am that nigga..” – saul williams

    Executed with poetic fluidity Walter Benjamin’s Theses on The Philosophy of History is an excellent point of departure for an examination of the treatment of time in Saul Williams’ “Sha Clack Clack.” The theses, written during Benjamin’s period of flight from the Nazis in Germany, discuss a radical Marxist approach to time in opposition to Fascism and capitalist violence. Historical materialism is this approach to time which understands the present not as a bridge between present and future, but as a time which has come to a full stop, where the past is made.

    With eyes wide, mouth open, and wings spread, Benjamin’s angel of history is the historical materialist, the Jew on the run from the Third Reich , the person escaping brutal genocide while maintaining Marxian subject status. In Ronald Judy’s “On The Question of Nigga Authenticity” he describes the nigga as “that which emerges from the demise of human capital… what happens when the field nigger loses value as labour.”

    Could Benjamin have foreseen the nigga, the emergence of this category outside Becoming and Being? Perhaps not. But approaching Benjamin’s work as a still useful analysis of time and state violence; we must, in this period of late capitalism, ask: “what of the nigga?”

    Angelus Novus——- Saul Williams——– Rammellzee

    In response to the Social Democrat backlash during which labor became secularized, Marx wrote, “the man who possesses no other property than his labor” will be forced to become “the slave of other men who have made themselves the owners.” Marx’s description of slavery speaks to wage slavery but not the brutality of chattel slavery of the American South. This wage slave is the slave that Marx deals with, the slave who will possess at least one commodity as long as capitalism continues to exist. Judy’s nigga is that subject whose existence was dependent, not upon maintaining labor as possession, but by being possessed as a mechanism of labor. In “Sha Clack Clack” the speaker affirms “i am that nigga, i am that nigga,” and says, “now is the essence of my domain”, it occupies this now and possesses it like a squatter in dilapidated inner city tenements. Williams’ narrator is what the angel of history can never be. The nigga has lost to the storm of progress but finds possibility in the wreckage. In the speaker’s identification as the nigga, the lowest common denominator, Saul Williams’ “Sha Clack Clack” seizes the present as a method towards achieving a radically new boundedness to time.

    Human Capital and The Promise of Connectedness

    “black people live the estrangement that science fiction writers imagine.”
    – greg tate, author & critic

    Erich Fromm describes Marx’s concept of alienation as “essentially experiencing the world and oneself passively, as the subject separated from the object .”(pg. 44) Marx seeks the reconnecting of the worker to its work and environment. Even if we were to believe that there was a way to deobjectify your work and move toward “the full realization of man’s humanity” (Fromm- VI ) what would that mean for bodies outside the scope of traditional Marxist analysis? Marx relies on a particular sociopolitical chronology rooted in his understanding of labor relations in his immediate society and his biased perception of labor relations elsewhere in order to arrive at his analysis. History is organized into four stages of economic evolution, socialism being the logical culmination of previously unsuccessful and inefficient modes of exchange. One can assume that, at least in part, he is saying that there is some natural state that the subject needs to arrive at and capitalism is a roadblock on that road to self-actualization. Because enslaved Africans were made into capital for the plantation economy they cannot be Marxian subjects like the German Jew or the Russian Red Army soldier. Marxian subjects possess their labor as commodity, the slave is possessed, and the nigga is valueless and dispossessed; a machine that has gone out of use. Broken machines have no true self to return to… or do they?

    In Elijah Muhammad’s “Know Thyself” he says that it is a lack of “knowledge of self” that keeps blacks from enjoying “freedom, justice, and equality.” He goes on to describe the historical achievements of various African peoples and connects blacks in America to them through flimsy scientific theory and spiritual and religious rhetoric. This self which the black is supposed to find is never described fully and can only be achieved through the adoption of the false consciousness of religious doctrine.

    ” We are the mighty the wise, the best, but do not know it. Being without the knowledge, we disgrace ourselves, subjecting ourselves to suffering and shame. We could not get the knowledge until the coming of Allah.”(Van Deburg- pg. 99)

    In later years, there is the emergence of Afrocentrism and the carefully crafted practices that are informed by what Maulana Karenga described as the need to “aid in the recovery and reconstruction of a lost historical memory and cultural legacy.”(Van Deburg – pg. 276)

    When was this “legacy” lost ? Where can it be found and most importantly what is its relevance to the plight of the black in this day and age?

    Orlando Patterson describes “natal alienation” as a primary factor in the maintenance of a slave-based economy . The main features of this are “the loss of ties of birth in both ascending and descending generations…a loss of native status, of deracination.” (Patterson- pg. 7) The brutal slavery of the American South undoubtedly employed this technique (as well as other techniques of dehumanization and division) in order to maintain this system. Assuming that legacies are passed along from generation to generation, the reality of enslavement necessarily complicates the possibility of inherited cultural practices; moreover even in the instance of inherited cultural practices, the reality of the existence as human machines cannot be usurped age-old tradition.

    Later, Patterson goes on to say: “The incapacity to make any claims to birth or to pass on such claims is considered a natural injustice among peoples, so that those who were obliged to suffer it had to be regarded as somehow socially dead.”(Patterson- pg. 8) As the black subject is forced into a type of social death during slavery, what does the (nominal) abolition of slavery mean to the dead person? It seems that many black nationalist theorists make two unseen leaps:

    1) they assert that the end of slavery equates to corporeal resurrection and

    2) that this resurrection will invigorate black lives with social “meaning”.
    In the writings of Muhammad and Karenga, as well as many other social-political theorists (black and non-black), we see what Jean-Francois Lyotard calls the “phantasy of the non-alienated region” or the “phantasy of a happy state of the working body.”(pg.121) The myth of a body which is, as Marx says, “…(liberated) from a kind of work which destroys his individuality…”(Fromm, pg. 43), is characteristic of doctrines of false consciousness.

    According to Marx, false consciousness is “rooted in the whole social organization of man which directs his consciousness in certain directions and blocks him from being aware of certain facts and experiences.”(Fromm-pg. 21) The binary of alienation and non-alienation misdirects the subject by assuming that this non-alienation is the desired space of the subjugated body and thus impeding the path of exploration (beyond Marx’s four stages) with the promise of connected-ness.

    The Time Lag

    You can’t see or do time, and most Micmac concepts are expressed in terms of events, in terms of doing or seeing, regardless of whether they are mental, emotional, or physical events. If you can’t do it or see it, you are not really living, at least not in the fullness of Algonquin life. You can’t do time unless you are in prison. You can’t see time except while watching the clock-something most native people try to avoid. So time is not real unless you are in prison.“- Evan T. Pritchard, anthropologist/writer

    …it was me the ecclesiastical one/ who saw that nothing was new under the sun/ and through times of laughter and times of fear / saw that no time was real time cause all times were fear…”– Saul Williams

    Though emerging from the contemporary ‘slam’/spoken word movement, Williams’ Sha Clack Clack follows in a poetic tradition of what writer Anthony Libby describes as “hymns to negation. ” A style which imagines a via negativa, that which sees “literal or figural death as the grounds of revelation.” A characteristic of this style of poetry is the struggle with the immanence of time. Sha Clack Clack opens “I know you are but what am I? /infinity” this childish quip represents the struggle between: 1) those who necessitate this ritualization of antagonistic violence in order to maintain rule and 2) those who must continually be the bearers of that violence. This exchange is the struggle of the poet to understand his existence through struggle against the ever-present constraints of measured time.

    The narrator’s struggle with the possibilities of time frame the discussion. We find that he had searched for the “place where truth echoes” and found only stagnancy, remaining in the bleak “now.” The temporal has a power to shape the spatial. Benjamin says, “There is a secret agreement between the past generations and the present one. Our coming was expected on earth. Like every generation that preceded us, we have been endowed with a weak messianic power, a power to which the past has a claim. That claim cannot be settled cheaply.” Williams however says even more; embodying the past to the future and the future to the past; he must find a way to let his children’s “future dwell in the past.”

    Benjamin’s “secret agreement” is a non-truth to the nigga. The promise of continued existence cannot be guaranteed for those confined to the realm of the Becoming, even less so, for those who no longer occupy any space of value; and therefore he is moving without direction, without the temporal anchors of past and future. The absence of these anchors represents the violence of measured time, the replacement of one’s ability to explore with obligations to the institutional. Williams’ narrator, with “a timeless stare/ turned mortal fear into stone time capsules.”

    What else could these time capsules be, but the carceral institutions unto which we have been assigned? The prisons, the schools, the factories, the office spaces. Why, we even insist that people “clock in!” These places, even in their visual representation, represent the systematic emptying out of one’s time, the emptying out of possibility. In “No Word For Time”, writer Evan Pritchard describes the way Algonquin people view time: “A drumming song often has a regular beat, but like the human heart it has its lags and bursts which betray deep seated feelings, or perhaps the tiredness of the person who is beating. Clocks have a beat that is heartless. They have no feelings, they are never tired, they don’t respect we who do have such limitations.”

    The forcing of a human being into the servitude under this heartless master is the violent pushing of human beings beyond their intended limits. However, the nigga “won’t work a nine-to-five.” As Ronald Judy says: ” The nigga is unemployed null and void walking around like…a nigga who understands that all possibility derives from capital, and capital does not derive from work.”

    In the conclusion to The Location of Culture, Homi Bhaba uses Fanon’s “fact of blackness” essay to work through a concept of time in relation to marginalized people. Similar to Williams, Bhaba seeks a space to intervene in contemporary discourses around modernity. He speaks of a time lag in which the postcolonial subject can imagine itself in the present moment and force open an enunciative and formative space. Benjamin insists, ” (For the historical materialist,) the past can only be seized as an image which flashes up at the instant when it can be recognized and is never seen again.”(pg. 255)

    Bhaba describes a recurrence in Toni Morrison’s book Beloved, which is the reappearance of the dead daughter Beloved. This creates a sense of timelessness as Beloved, as apparition, occupies the space of the past, but is not the elder or ancestor that one would expect to occupy the past. Beloved’s movement forward within the past creates a crisis, which brings on a time lag. Similarly, in Sha Clack Clack, the narrator’s inability to anchor his space in time, causes a surge of images in which the past ceases the future:

    ” and i be having dreams of chocolate covered watermelons filled with fried chickens like piñatas. with little pickaninny sons and daughters, standing up under them with big sticks and aluminum foil, hittin’ them, trying to catch pieces of fallen fried chicken wings. and aunt jemima and uncle ben are standing in the corner with rifles pointed at all the heads of the little children.” “don’t shoot the children,” i shout. “don’t shoot the children.” but it’s too late, they’ve already been infected by time.According to Bhaba”…it is this form of temporality which emerges…to face progress with some unanswerable questions and suggest some answers of its own.”(pg. 238) Williams’ narrator is “spitting at death from behind and putting kick me signs on its back.” Moving at frantic pace, he defies the limits of time because he is “not the son of sha clack clack.” He was not born out of the violence of institutionalized, of secularized labor, he was before and after. Though he may not be explicitly suggesting answers, behaviour is its own response. In the crisis of the shooting of the “pickaninny sons and daughters” the protagonist rises to the occasion. Though the past assaults the future up to “six by six”, his spirit begins to grow “seven by seven, faster than the speed of light.”

    According to the way of the Algonquin people “The seventh direction (of the sacred directions) has no color it is hidden in the heart where it is hardest to look.”(pg. 20) This “seven-by-seven” growth of spirit is an unseen movement; it is a non-movement. In this mythical movement, the nigga moves from non-person to non-thing.

    Cyborgs and The No-thing That Is

    “Cybernetics have already been applied to black subjects ever since the end of the 18th century.I think what we get at the end of the 20th century in music technology is a point where producers are kind of willingly taking on the role of the cyborg, willingly taking on that mad machine interface just to explore the mutations that have already happened and to accelerate them some more. Now the question is: cyborgs for what ? The answer is, of course, to get out of here, to get out of this time here, this space now.”
    – Kodwo Eshun, critic

    “..but my spirit is growing seven by seven/ faster than the speed of light/ ’cause light only penetrates the darkness that’s already there/ i’m here at the end of the road which is the
    beginning of the road beyond time….”
    – saul williams “sha clack clack”

    According to Sidney M.Wilhelm’s thesis on the inevitability of genocide against blacks Who Needs the Negro? “The arrival of automation eliminates the need for black…” This automation is the storm of progress pushing through. Paul Miller AKA DJ Spooky says the goal of Afrofuturist musicians is to create a music that “exists in the nowhere.” Growing out of the burned-out husks of previously productive industrial centers, during the period of downsizing in the late 80’s, this music reflected the sentiment of those who remained in these areas as they became defunct and disenfranchised. The narrative of these areas ran parallel to the narratives of the bodies that inhabited them, these bodies who had been written off as non-persons in this new global economy.

    These people began to roam the streets and through the abandoned warehouses. Without the time clocks and pressures of waged labor, this factories and assembly lines came to be understood in dynamic new ways. The young people came to be fascinated with these machines, and in the spirit of Gibson’s cyberpunk axiom “The streets find uses for things” , began to compose sounds and create images that grew out of this bleak present.

    We find examples of this in graffiti artist Rammellzee’s uber-cyber-suit, the Gasholeer, “a 148 pound, gadgetry encrusted exoskeleton”(Dery pg.183) built out of salvage; and the music of artists such as Derrick May and Underground Resistance. The worlds they imagine exist in the “nowhere” fashioned out of those elements that the storm of progress left by the wayside. They embody elements of society that cannot easily be brought under the logic of capitalism. The nigga exists here; Saul Williams ends “Sha Clack Clack” by proclaiming:

    i am standing at the end of the road which is the beginning of the road beyond time/ but where my niggas at ?/ don’t tell me my niggas got lost in time/ my niggas got lost in time/ my niggas are dying before their time/ my niggas are dying because of time

    The narrator’s missing niggas don’t exist as niggas. Scrambling for work, they believe they can save their lives through becoming waged work. Williams’ nigga understands that he lost his value when he became disconnected from capital, this connection to capital did not come from work, but from the violence of stolen lifetimes. Black workers exist as the walking dead scurrying when the clock strikes them and threatened by the necessity of genocide displayed by a market hungry for more bodies. Williams’ narrator beckons to his niggas to come to the end of the road of the time to, as Kodwo Eshun says, “get out of this time here.” However, this end of the road demands conflict; the move to become ( and not be rendered !)incoherent in the language of capital demands struggle.

    In Martin Heidegger’s Existence and Being he works through questions of Being. He concludes that, (the way to delve into an exploration of what it means to Be involves) “that latent and non-sensical idea of a Nothing that ‘is.'” (Libby- pg.7) Black workers have anchored themselves based on an imposed system of time. Though they exist as nearly walking dead, they use physical death as an anchor in their linear narration of time. In allowing the clock to become their master, they have refused to probe the question of what it means to Be. In the middle of this storm, these niggas become simply wreckage.

    SOURCES

    Akomfrah, John The Last Angel of History (video)
    Benjamin, Walter Illuminations, Schocken Books- New York- 1968
    Bhaba, Homi The Location of Culture , Routledge- New York- 1994
    Dery, Mark Flame Wars, Duke University Press- North Carolina – 1994
    Fromm, Eric Marx’s Concept of Man, Frederick Unger Publishing Co. – New York- 1961
    Judy, Ronald- “On The Question of Nigga Authenticity” in boundary 2- vol 21(?)
    Lyotard, Jean-Francois Libidinal Economy , Indiana University Press- Indiana- 1993
    Marable, Manning How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America , South End Press- Boston, MA -1983
    Patterson, Orlando Slavery and Social Death, Harvard University Press
    Pritchard, Evan T. No Word For Time: The Way of the Algonquin People
    Stratton, Richard (ed.) & Kim Wozencraft (ed.) Slam , Grove Press- New York – 1998
    Turkle, Sherry – The Second Self: Computers and The Human Spirit , Simon & Schuster – New York – 1984
    Van Deburg, William L. Modern Black Nationalism , New York University Press – New York – 1997